PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE OF BEDIUZZAMAN SAID NURSI ON HUMAN CREATION

ABSTRACT

The study of human creation and its evolutionary processes has always occupied the thinking of scholars. Human nature and its antecedents have equally been subjected to numerous inter and cross disciplinary studies. The human being as a social, political and economic being has a definite purpose both in this world and in the hereafter. Mankind is destined to represent the purpose of creation on earth and to nurture and look after it. It is against this background that this paper discusses the meaning of creation according to Bediuzaman Said Nursi. It also examines the philosophical basis of human creation, as well as the methodological analysis of human creation. Significantly, the paper examines the nature of the human being in the light of Risale Nur. The paper concludes by highlighting the significance of Nursi’s approach to understanding human creation in particular and human society in general.

DR. VAFFI FODAY SHERIFF, Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Islamic Studies, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto – Nigeria

Introduction

Bediuzzaman Said Nursi was born in eastern part of Turkey in 1877. He was a scholar of the highest standing having studied not only traditional religious sciences, but also modern science and technology. Because of this, he was titled Bediuzzaman- wonder of the age in his youth as a result of his outstanding ability and learning. Bediuzzaman died in 1960 at the age of 83 after a lot of struggle and self-sacrifice in the cause of Islam.[1] His greatest achievement was his book Risale-i Nur collection which runs into about 5000 pages with different subjects are covered.

Philosophy means the study of nature and meaning of the universe and of human life[2]but the word creation denotes the act or process of making something that is new, or of causing something to exist that did not exist before, theologically, the issues of creation have something to do with the world, especially by Allah (God) as described in the divine books the Qur’an and Bible[3] In this context, how the philosophy of Bediuzzaman can be seen on human creation? What is the purpose of human creation according to his own understanding? To what extent is the significance of Bediuzzaman’s philosophy a lesson for the Muslim Ummah?

MEANING OF HUMAN CREATION ACCORDING TO  BADIUZAMAN SAID NURSI

The word “khalaqa” to create “kha’aliq” creator (Allah) and (maklugue) creature, should be well explained. According to Nursi all for instance: a house cannot arise without a builder particularly a house adorned with miraculous works of art, wondrous designs and amazing ornaments. The example is that of a building. As much art has been put into one of its stones as into a whole place. No intelligence will accept that it could arise without a builder; definitely, it needs a master architect.

Moreover, within the building, veritable rooms take shape and change each hour with the utmost order and ease, just as if clothes were being changed, or as if scenes were passing across a cinema screen. We can say even that numerous little rooms are constantly being created in each of those scenes. In like manner, the cosmos also requires an infinitely wise, all-knowing and all-powerful maker[4]. Above the statement of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi it’s vital to ask about the philosophical basis of human creation. The following paragraph gives more details on the question.

PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF HUMAN CREATION ACCORDING TO BEDIEZZAMAN SAID NURSI

This paragraph shows that human beings are created by Allah which is confirmed by Bediuzzaman when he says “ the one who creates a fruit with all of its art and meaning can create and govern Earth”[5]. This statement is in accordance with Abd al-majid’s point of view when he underlined that Human beings are part of this universe, despite the fact that each individual is a unique being distinguished from others by physique, position, and role. Indeed, the creation or design of man’s physique and the details of his role proceeded, in Allah’s knowledge, man’s creation: “Behold, your lord said to the angels: I will create a vicegerent on Earth, they said: will you place upon it one who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify you with praises and thanks and sanctify you. He (Allah) said: “ I know that what you do not know.”[6]  It is important to understand this statement. It is not unlikely that the universe, as a whole, and the beings there, in have undergone many stages of development and change until both reached their present image.

However, the Qur’an suggest that the first man, Adam, was created in his entirety from the very beginning and did not develop from animal strains of lower position in the hierarchy of beings[7]  Allah says: “we have indeed created man in the best of molds[8]. Also relevant in this instance in the Qur’an[9] which refers to man by his functional name of khalifah and state that man was created in his entirely, a clear refutation of Darwin’s theory of evolution. The story of human creation is narrated as follows. “remember when your lord said to the angels; truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed in to him (his) soul created by me, then our fall down prostrate to him. So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them; except Iblis (Satan: he was proud and was one of the disbelievers”[10] The creation of Adam is also likened to the creation of Jesus: “ the similitude of Jesus : “The similitude of Jesus before  Allah is as that of Adam. He created him from dust then said to him: “Be” and he was”[11] Both the creation of Adam and Isa) Jesus include an element of surprise, it is a departure from the familiar law of causality. Both incidents suggest that man was created in his entirely, and that human beings were molded and qualified for their role from the very beginning[12]The question that should be posed here is that what is the methodology that Bediuzzaman Said Nursi follows in analyzing issues or elements of human creation?

METHODOLOGY OF  BEDIUZZAMAN SAID NURSI IN ANALYZING ISSUES OF HUMAN CREATION

In analyzing issues of human creation Bediuzzaman Siad Nursi follows analytical and critical method, because he usually gathered notions on human creation from different perspectives, either from the Qur’an or philosophical arguments and tries to analyze them with criticism. He says “the worst error of misguidance of students of philosophy, the people of unbelief and instinctual soul; lie in not recognizing Allah. Just as in the preceding story the trust worthy man who says: these can be no letter without a scribe, no law without a legislator[13]  For Nursi, A book particularly one in each word of which a minute pen has inscribed another whole book and in each letter of which a fine pen has traced a poem, cannot be without a writer, this would be entirely impossible entirely impossible [14]so too this cosmos cannot be without its inscriber, this is impossible to the includes many  other books each of its words contain a book, and each of letter contain a poem. The face of the earth is but a single page in the book of the cosmos. See how many books it contains. Every fruit is a letter, and every seed is a dot. In that dot is contained the index of the whole tree in its vastness. Faith, then follows inevitably on the observation of the world, unless one is drunk on misguidance. [15] Qur’an explains by saying that “he sends down water from the sky and brings forth with it fruits for you sustenance, and he has made subject to you the ships that they sail through the sea by his command, and he has made the rivers subject to you. And he has made subject for the sound the moon, both diligently pursuing their courses, and he has made subject to you the night and the day. And he gives you of all that you ask him. But it you count Allah’s bounties, you will never be able to number them.[16] The above Qur’anic verse, Bediuzzaman explains clearly the cooperation and solidarity that exist between the creatures that are not he says that “The mutual assistance and cooperation of beings in some times visible. The universe and the fact that they respond to one another show that all creatures are raised by a single Nuture, are organized by a single Director, are[17] under the jurisdiction of a single disposer, are the servants of a Single Lord. For through an all- embracing law of mutual assistance, the sun cooks the necessities for the lives of living beings on the earth through a dominical command and the moon acts as a calendar, and light, air water, and sustenance hasten to the assistance of living beings, and plants hasten to the assistance of animals and animals, hasten to the assistance of human beings, and the members of the body hasten to assist one another, and particles of food even hasten to the assistance  of the cells of the body [18]. This most wise and generous mutual assistance of these beings and their responding to one another’s needs and their supporting and strengthening one another in accordance with a law of generosity, a law of compassion, a law of mercy, show clearly and self evidently that they are the servants, officials and creatures of a sole, unique single one of unity, a peerless Eternally besought one an Absolutely powerful, Absolutely knowing. Absolutely compassionate, absolutely Generous Necessarily Existent one. By concluding his analysis and criticism he says: (O wretched bankrupt philosophy! What have you say in the face of this mighty window? Can your chance interfere in this? [19]In all what has arranged? Answering this question draws our attention to an importance issues, namely the nature of human being and his duties.

NATURE OF HUMAN BEING AND HIS DUTY IN THE LIGHT OF RISALE NUR

Talking about the nature of human being and his duty, we should understand that laws have to do with man’s nature and his duties. These can be noticed in the following:

  1. “Man cannot live without religion”
  2. “Ownership is basic to man’s nature”
  3. “Man was created in impotence and weakness he is in need of compassion”
  4. “Man does not like oppression and terror”
  5.  “Man is the servant of bestowal”
  6.  “Man is not only a physical, lowly being, just as his stomach needs sustenance, so do his heart and spirit”
  7. “Man was created for eternity. His nature seeks eternity and desires immortality”
  8. “Man thinks of and remembers those he loves”
  9. “Seeking refuge with, and help and forgiveness from almighty Allah (God), and prayer and supplication are essential to his nature”
  10. “By nature, man wants to be treated in a way worthy of humanity” [20]

According to the above claims, the laws are placed in the universe and included in man’s nature cannot be rooted out and cast away. When man learns of the relationship between these laws and establishes their balance, he finds his perfection. Only it is beyond men’s power to discover these principles, understand their fine balance, and completely reflect them wisdom and justice in all the levels of life and classes of man[21]. These facts have a correlation with Nursi’s view on the creation of the world.

THEOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS OF BEDIUZZAMAN SAID NURSI ON THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

The belief of Nursi in Allah’s creation of the world makes him finding justification to assure that “there is no deficiency in Allah’s power.  The greatest things and the smallest ones are the same in relation to His power. It is as easy for Him to create the spring as to create a flower. Yes, one so powerful that this world together with all its suns, stars, worlds, particles, and substances bear witness to his sublimity and power with endless tongues. Does any doubt or misgiving have the right to consider bodily resurrection remote from such a power ? It is plain to see that every age within this world an All-powerful one of Glory creates a new, travelling orderly universe. Indeed, according to Nursi, He (Allah) makes a new, well ordered world each day [22] He perpetually creates changes with perfect wisdom transient worlds and universe one after the other on the face of the heavens and the earth. [23]

HUMAN BEING AND THE UNIVERSE

Human being is among the honourable creatures in this world which is confirmed by the Qur’an [24]Besides the world itself was created for the benefit of mankind. Allah says, it is He who has created you all that is on earth, and his applied hi design to the heavens, and has fashioned them into seven heavens, and all of things He has full knowledge[25]. The Question here, is that where does the value of human being come from? Why does he have such importance? And what is his position in Allah’s sight that He should bring about the resurrection of the dead on account of him? So the Qur’an replies through the indications of this “Man has high value as is evidenced by the heavens and earth being subjugated to him for his use. He also has vast importance as is evidenced by the fact that Allah did not create him for creation, but created creation for him. He also has a high place in Allah’s sight as is evidenced by the Allah who did not give existence to the world for itself. It is to be concluded from this that man is superior and pre-eminent and not like the animals.[26] The question that should be posed in this context is that what are the purposes of human creation in this world? What he or she supposes to do or not to do?

Convergence between mankind and the universe

As both man and the universe were created by Allah, they have many things in common. Both were created from nothing by Allah’s will and both will return to Allah “It is He who created all things and ordered them in due proportion”[27] and “And to Allah belongs the dominion of heavens and the Earth and all that is between them and to Him is the final goal (of all).[28]

Despite man’s uniqueness, he shares with animate beings the essential substance from which everything was created; raw dust: “O mankind!, if you have a doubt about the resurrection, (consider) that we created you out of dust”[29] mankind also shares the element of water with animals, Allah says:

“And Allah has created every animal from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs and some that walk on four.”[30]

Along with other created beings, mankind is subjected to the laws of change and motion, laws that led prophet Ibrahim to believe in the one and only Allah.[31]

“Have you not turned your vision to one (Pharaoh) who disputed with Ibrahim (Abraham) about his lord (Allah), because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Ibrahim said (to him): “my lord (Allah) is he who gives life and causes death.” He said “I give life and cause death.” Ibrahim (Abraham) said “verily, Allah brings the sun from the East, then bring it you from the West.” So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are zalimum (wrong – doers)”[32] According to Islamic perspective, what is the divergence between mankind and universe?

DIVERGENCE BETWEEN MANKIND AND UNIVERSE

The relationship between mankind and the universe does not make them equal, for man is considered higher than any other created being[33] Allah says:

“And indeed, we have honoured the children of Adam, and we have carried them on land and sea, and have provided them with at Tayyibat (lawful good things), and have preferred them to many of those whom we have created with a marked preferment.”[34]

Above the verses of the Qur’an there are differences between mankind and other creatures, especially mankind is honoured by the prophets while other creatures are not. The vicegerency of man in the universe is blessing for him while other animals are not.

PURPOSE OF HUMAN CREATION IN THIS WORLD ACCORDING TO BEDIUZZAMAN SAID NURSI

Bediuzzaman attempts to answer questions in respect of human creation in this world by philosophical meditations by saying “oh son of Adam! From where you come from and where are you going as your last destination? What do you all do? Who controls you? Who speakes to you? The answers, for these questions can be found in the Qur’an [35] as cited by Nursi himself[36]. However, the purposes beyond the creation of human being are diverse.

Thus, it is vital to mention some of them as follows:

WORSHIP: it is clearly mentioned in the Qur’an that the first purposes of human creation is worship. In this context Allah says “I created not the jirin and mankind except that they should worship me. (alone). I seek not any provision from them not do I ask that they should feed me [37] Above the verse, it should be underlined that the existence of mankind cannot be significant without worship. This entails a human being’s free choice to submit to and obey the will of Allah. Other beings do so, but out of force rather than their free choice. The purse could also be to bestow blessing and happiness on human beings in this life and in the hereafter by providing them with the tools of reflection and comprehensions which assist in human growth developing the universe and attaining reward in this life and in the hereafter[38]  the above statement is not in contradiction with Bediuzzamman own, because he gives more importance to worship human creator he says “ The man who gives up worship and ritual prayer is violating in a significant manner the rights of beings, who are like the subject of the pre-Eternity and post-Eternity, and is in fact acting unjustly towards them.[39] Besides, Bediuzzamman adds to the above statement that “For the perfections of beings are manifested through the glorification and worship performed by that aspect of them which is directed towards their maker. The person who abandons worship does not and cannot see this worship. Indeed, he denies it due to his ignorance[40] . Thus, Bediuzzamman makes differences between the individuals according to their natures and feelings the indeed everyone sees the world in his own mirror. Almighty Allah (God) created man as a measure and scale for the universe. And from the world. He gave a particular world to each person. This world, he colours for him in accordance with his sincere beliefs. For example, a despairing lamenting, weeping person sees beings as weeping’s and in despair, while a cheerful, optimistic, merry person sees the universe as joyful and smiling. A reflective man given to solemn worship and glorification discovers and sees to a degree the certain, truly existent worship and glorification of beings, while a person who abandons worship through either neglect or denial sees beings in a manner totally contrary and opposed to the reality of their perfections thus, transgressing their right[41] . Furthermore, since the one who gives up prayer does not own himself, he wrongs his own soul, which is a slave of its true owner[42]

SIGNIFICANCE OF BISMILLAH IN THE NAME OF ALLAH” IN WORSHIP

In the first word of Risale, inur, Bediuzzaman Said Nursi gives importance to the phrase “Bismillah” in the name of Allah. He considers it as “the start of all things good and just ad this blessed phrase is a mark of Islam, so too it is constantly recited by all beings through their tongues of disposition” [43] for Beduizzamman, “the person who acts saying in the name of Allah resembles someone who enrolls in the army, he acts in the name of the government, he has fear of no one, he speaks, performs every matter, and with stands everything in the name of the law and the name of the government. At the beginning it has been recognized that all beings say “in the name of Allah” through the tongue of disposition is that so?[44] Bediuzzamman answers this question by saying in deed it is so.[45] His reason is that “if you were to see that a single person had come and driven all the inhabitants of a town to a place by force and compelled them to work, you would be certain that he had not acted in his name and through his own power, but that he was a soldier, acting in the name of the government and relying on the power of a king” [46] Bediuzzaman goes furthermore and says “in the same way, all things act in the name of Almighty Allah for minute things like seeds and grains bear huge trees on their heads, they raise load like mountains, that means all trees say: “In the name of Allah” and become cauldrons from the kitchens of divine power in which are cooked numerous varieties of different foods. All blessed animals like cows, camels, sheep, and goats, say: “in the name of Allah” and become fountains of milk from the abundance of mercy, offering us a most delicate and pure food like the water of life in the name of the provider. The roots and rootlets, soft as silk, of all plants, trees, and grasses, say: “in the name of  Allah “and pierce and pass through hard rock and earth. Mentioning the name of Allah, the name of the most merciful everything becomes subjected to them[47] since all things say, “in the name of Allah and bearing Allah’s bounties in Allah’s name give them to us, we too should say “in the name of Allah”[48] In this context, it is vital to underline some important issues about the assignments given to mankind in this world. What are they?

MANKIND AND HIS ASSIGNMENTS IN THE WORLD

BELIEF (IMAN)

Among the purposes of human creation in this world is belief in Allah. Besides, the basis of any religion is faith. Faith is not merely conviction of the truth of a given principle, but it is essentially the acceptance of a principle as a basis for actions. Without faith, a man is like a car without a steering wheel, drifting aimlessly upon a sea of doubt and confusion. Faith in this article means a belief in the unity of Allah or Tawheed. This is expressed in the primary Kalimah (word) of Islam as “Laailaah” meaning “there is no one worthy of worship but Allah” this beautiful phrase is the bedrock of Islam, its foundation and its essence. It is the expression of this belief, which differentiates a true Muslim from an unbeliever or one who associates others with Allah in his Divinity[49] Moreover, the acceptance or denial of this phrase produces a world a difference among human beings. The believer finds out the right path, knows the truth and chalks out the course of life in the light of reality, the unbeliever chases one illusion after the other and grapes into the dark. For the believers, there is the promise of unhampered progress  and resounding success in this world and in the hereafter, whereas failure and ignoring are ultimately the lot of those who refuse to believe in it”[50] For Bediuazzaman, “Belief illuminates the road to eternity[51] besides, Bediuazzaman goes furthermore and says “if you want to understand this world, and man’s spirit within the world, and the nature and value of religion within man, and how the world is a prison if there is no true religion, and that without religion man becomes the most miserable of creatures in this world”[52]. That is to say that, “belief in Allah bear the seed of what is in effect a Tuba Tree of paradise, while unbelief conceals the seed of a Zaggum Tree of Hell. That means that safety and security are only to be found in Islam and belief. In the same vein Bediuazzaman stresses that we should continually say: “praise be to Allah for the religion of Islam and perfect belief” [53]. According to Bediuazzaman faith or belief has direct connection with knowledge, because one cannot talk about faith without knowledge and vice-versa. This is the one that should be first discussed.

KNOWLEDGE AND FAITH

In Islam the first project was given to Muslims was “Reading[54] therefore the concept of al-Tarbiyya or al-Ta’lim education is a provision for both males and females particularly young children contrary to common perception the seeking of all types of knowledge be it academic, vocational, religious or secular is encouraged at all stages. Besides, learning at an early age is thought to allow the mind to concentrate without the stresses and responsibility of later adult life. Said Nursi emphasizes that knowledge yields happiness of this world and the one to come, and that humanity came to this world to be perfected through knowledge and supplication[55] Thus knowledge without the hearts insight is ignorance[56] therefore, Bediuzzaman goes further and says that “we Muslims, who are students of the Qur’an, follow proof, we approach the truths of belief through reason, thought and our hearts (Faith). We do not abandon proof (reason) in favour of blind obedience and imitation of the clergy like some adherents of other religions. Therefore, in the future when reason, science and technology prevail, of a certainty that will be the time the Qur’an will gain ascendancy, which relies on rational proofs and invites the reason to confirm its pronouncements[57]. Above the statement of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, there is no contradiction between faith and science, but what sincerity is meant to Bediuzzaman Said Nursi?

SINCERITY: sincerity is feelings, beliefs or behavior showing what you really think or feel. The sincerity of a person’s belief is a belief that is unquestionable[58]. For Bediuazzaman, “if you want plentiful reward, take sincerity as your foundation and think only of Allah’s pleasure. Then every syllable of the blessed wards that issue forth from your mouth will be brought to life by your sincerity and truth intention are going to the ears of innumerable sentient beings, they will illumine them and earn you reward”[59] In addition to this, in the matters relating to religion and the hereafter there should be no rivalry envy or jealousy, indeed, there can be none of these in truth [60] Bediuzzaman explains the reasons and sources of envy and hatred or jealousy for him “the causes for envy and jealousy is that when several hands reach out after a single object, when several eyes are fixed on a single position, when several stomachs hunger for a single loaf of bread, first envy arises as a result of conflict, dispute, and rivalry and then jeslousy. Since many people desire the same thing in the world, and because the world, narrow and transitory as it is, cannot satisfy the limitless desires of man, people become rivals of each other. However, in the hereafter a five-hundred-year paradise will be given to a single individual seventy thousand palaces and houris will be granted to him, and every one of the people of paradise will be perfectly satisfied with his share”[61]. It is thus clear that there is no cause for rivalry in the hereafter, nor can there be rivalry. In that case, neither should there be any rivalry with respect to those good deeds that entail reward, in the hereafter there is no room for jealously there. The one jealous here is either a hypocrite seeking worldly result through the performance of good deeds, or a sincere but ignorant devotee not knowing the true purpose of good deeds and not comprehending that sincerity is the spirit foundation of all good deeds[62] In the contemporary world, Muslims are in needs to understand deep meaning of sincerity in order to put it in practice, by doing so, they can attain undoubly to happiness in this world and he hereafter. On the other hand, loving Allah means sacrificing all other values such as brotherhood feelings for the human benefit. This makes us to talk about brotherhood in Islam according to Nursi.

Brotherhood: According to Bediuazzaman Said Nursi, Muslims are brothers therefore, “Dispute and discord among the believers, and partisanship, obstinacy and envy, leading to rancour and enmity among them, are repugnant and vile, are harmful and sinful, by the combined of testimony of wisdom and the supreme humanity that is Islam, for personal, social, and spiritual life. They are in short, poison for the life of man[63]. Allah says “Verily the believers are nothing else than brothers, (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allah, that you may receive mercy”[64]. This quotation has to do with consultation between the individuals, communities and nations.

Consultation: In the six word of the Risale-i Nur, Bediuazzaman Said Nursi calls for consultation between communities and nations. He pointed out that individuals and nations. He pointed out that “the key to Muslims happiness in the life of islamic society is the mutual consultation enjoined by the shariah (whose rule is consultation among themselves[65].The consultation that Bediuzzaman talks about is just as the consultation of the ages and centuries that mankind has practiced by means of history, a conjunction of ideas, formed the basis of man’s progress. Therefore, the failure of asia can be explained by the lack of consultation practice besides, just as individuals should consult one another, so must nations and continents practice consultation[66] what is the benefit from the consultation according to Nursi? According to Nursi, consultation results in sincerity and solidarity. Many historical evens inform us that as a result of ture sincerity, solidarity and consultation, ten men may perform the work of a thousand. Moreover, man’s need’s are endless and his enemies innumerable, his strength and capital insignificant, and the number of destructive, harmful humans who have become like monsters through lack of religion is increasing. In the face of those endless enemies and innumerable needs, man can continue his personal life only through the support and assistance proceeding from belief, and can maintain his social life only through the mutual consultation enjoined by the shariah, that again proceeds from the truths of belief. It is only thus that can halt his enemies and open up a way to secure his needs[67]. All these issues can only be effective if truthfulness or honesty of mankind is practiced.

TRUTHFULNESS OR HONESTY

Truthfulness or honesty is vital in human life. According to Bediuazzaman Said Nursi, truthfulness is the basis and foundation of Islam, and the bond between people of good character, and the basis of elevated emotions. Since this is so, as the foundation of the life of our society, we must bring to life truthfulness and honesty, and cure moral and spiritual sickness with them[68]. Bediuazzaman affirms that “truthfulness and honesty are the vital principles in the life of Islamic society. Hypocrisy is a sort of actualized lying. Flattery and artifice are cowardly lying. Duplicity and double-dealing are harmful lying. And as for lying, it is so slander the All-Glorious Maker’s power”[69]. Above the statement, it’s can be noticed that truthfulness or honesty has to do with issues of belief and unbelief because according to Bediuazzaman, “unbelief in all its varieties is falsehood and lying. But belief is truthfulness and honesty. As a consequence of this, there is a limitless distance between truth and falsehood, they should be as distant from one another as the East is from the west”[70]. In Bedieuzzam philosophical perspectives, belief has to do with hope. This is the one is going to be discussed.

HOPE

Hope means to want something to happen and think that it is possible[71] Some of the repeated themes in Nursi’s work when speaking of the life stages of childhood and old age are necessity  of hope and the vulnerability and power lessness that attract to a person a disproportionate element of divine mercy. At abstract level, both hope and mercy are spiritual qualities, hope on the part of the human being and mercy ultimately derived from divine Bestowal. Generally, (raja) hope in classical Islamic discussion, usually paired with the counter balance of fear (khaulf), that sometimes depicted in the image of two wings that allow a bird to soar higher[72] Bediuazzaman sees that hope is required in man for his life continuity contrary to despair which is a most grievous sickness and it has entered the health of the world of Islam. It is despair that has as though killed us so that a small state of one or two million in the West has as though made twenty million Muslims in the East its servant and their country its colony.  And it is despair that has killed our high morals, and causing us to abandon the public good, has restricted our right to personal benefits[73]. Despair according to Nursi is a most grievous sickness of communities and nations- a cancer.  It is an obstacle to achievement and is opposed to the truth of Islamic teaching, because it is the quality and pretext of cowards, the base and the impotent. It does not tell of Islamic courage[74]. Allah says” Do not despair of Allah’s Mercy” [75] in other verse Allah says: “why do you not hope (Tarjauna) for dignity (Wiqar) from Allah[76] when he created you in diverse stages. Do not you see how Allah has created the seven heavens in harmony[77] in other verse Allah says “What is the matter with you, that you fear not Allah (His punishment); and you hope not (tarijuuna) for reward (from Allah or you believe not in His oneness).  While He has created you in (different) stages (i.e first  Nutfah, then Alagah and then Mdghah. See you no how Allah has created the seven heavens one above anotehr”[78]Above the Qur’anic verse it’s should be born in mind that the contemplation of nature inspire hope. This is resonant with Nursi’s repeated evocation of natural phenomena-plants, butterflies, and spring itself as representing and inspiring hope[79]. The question that should be posed here what hope can do with universal peace process that Nursi is hoping for its implementation in society?

MANKIND AND UNIVERSAL PEACE BUILDING

Accordingly, man is created Allah and is commissioned to be as Allah’s vice-gerent on earth. He is so chosen to cultivate the land and enrich life with knowledge, virtue, purpose and meaning and to achieve his goal, everything in the earth and the heavens is created for him and is made subservient to him. Life on this planet is not a prison for man, his coming into the world was not an arbitrary punishment for previously committed sins. Nor was he expelled from another world and cast out into this one. His existence was no mere chance or undersigned occurrence. For men to discharge his responsibility of vice-regency, and to achieve the goals enumerated above, he needs to have peace in this world.[80]  As Muslim scholar, known by peace making, mediation and reconciliation is quite agrees with non violence. Because according to his work such as the Damascus Sermon, shows that he believes in peace building in the world. He says “By Allah willing and through the strength of Islam in the future, the virtues of civilization will prevail, the face of the earth cleansed of filth, and universal peace be secured[81] for Bediuzzaman, the hope for enjoying the benefit from universal peace and progress is still exist. For him, since the desire to progress and be perfected has been included in the universe and in mans essential nature, for sure, if dooms day does not soon engulf mankind as a result of its errors and wrong doing, in the future truth and justice will show the way to a worldly happiness in the world of Islam, Allah willing, in which there will be atonement for the former errors of mankind”[82].

Conclusion

The research has attempted to present a brief on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. It has also discussed the conceptual clarification on philosophy, meaning of human creation, philosophical basis of human creation, nature of human being and his duties, theological arguments of Nursi on creation of the universe, human being and the universe It has also looked at the convergences and divergences between them. Purposes of human creation and significance of human creation in which sincerity, brotherhood, consultation truthfulness, hope, including, human being and universal peace building. All these issues were discussed.

From the foregoing analysis of human creation according to Bediuzzaman’s philosophy, the paper can be concluded by saying that, the philosophy of Bediuzzaman is moralistic than to be materialistic or idealistic. He goes furthermore and confirm that man is created by Allah, so the world for Bediuzzaman is just as a guest – house, and as far man remains there only for a short time, and is a guest with many duties and in a brief life time is charged with preparing all the necessities for eternal life. Though, Nursi is convinced that human creation progresses from stage to stage, that is from sperm to a clot of congealed blood, from the clot to a fetus lump, from lump to flesh and bone, and from flesh and bone to the form of a human being. Despite this progresses dimension in Nursi’s human creation, philosophy, it denies Darwin’s human evolution that has nothing to do with Islamic theology in which Nursi believes.

 

NOTES AND REFERENCES

[1] See more for this information in the book “message for the sick” from the Risale-i Nur collection, Sozler publications, Istanbul 2005, p. 7. See again Sukran Vahide, Islam in Modern Turkey: An intellectual Biography of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, edited with an introduction by Ibrahim M. Abu-rabiu, State University of New York Press, U.S.A, 2005, p. 3-48.

[2] Oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary of current English, oxford university press, sixth edition 2000, p. 872. See the similar meanings in Ibrahim Unais and others, Al-Mu’jamu al-wassit p. 733.

[3] Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary p. 273. Ibrahim unais, ibid. p. 275. Many verses give meanings of creators in the Qur’an, see for instance: Qur’an 2:29, Qur’an 4:1, Qur’an 5:18, Qur’an 6:1, 73,101, Qur’an 7:54, 185, Qur’an 9: 36, Qur’an 10: 3,5, Qur’an 11:7, Qur’an 14: 19, 32, Qur’an 16:3.

[4] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, The words, Sozler publications, 2008. Pp. 70-71.

[5] Bediuzzaman said Nursi, AL- Mathmawi AL-Nuri, Seedbed of the light, Translated by Huseyin Akarsu, from Turkish in to English, published by the light, New Jersey, 08873, USA. P. 48.

[6] Qur’an 2:30.

[7] See Abd al Majid al Najjar, The Vicegerency Man Between Revolution and Reason. Acritique of the dialectic of the Text, Reason, and Translated by Dr. Aref. T. Atari, The International Institute of Islamic Thought, Herndon, Virginia, USA, 1420 AH/2000. Ac, P. 13-14.

[8] Qur’an 95:4.

[9] Qur’an 2:15:29 and 38:72.

[10] Quran 38: 71-74.

[11] Quran 3:59.

[12] Read more in Abd al-Majid al-Najjar, Ibid p.14.

[13] Bediuzzamand Said Nursi, The Word, p. 70.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid

[16] Ibid

[17] Quran 14:32-34.

[18] Bediuzzamen said nursi, the words, p. 691.

[19] Ibid.

[20] See more prof. Sener Dilex “ The Risale-Nursi Method and Aim Retrieved, from http://www.Nursi studies.org/tebig.phd? t no=254.on 30.05.2013.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, the words, p. 545.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Qur’an 17: 70.

[25] Qur’an 2: 29.

[26] Bediuzzamman Said Nursi, Signs of Miraculousness, the Inimitability of the Qu’ran’s conciseness, Sozler, publications, Istanbul 2004, p. 251-252.

[27] Qur’an, 25:2.

[28] Qur’an, 5:18.

[29] Qur’an, 22:5.

[30] Qur’an, 24:45.

[31] Abd almajid al-Najjar, Ibid. p.16-17.

[32] Qur’an, 2 58.

[33] Abd almajid al-Najjar, Ibid.

[34] Qur’an 17:70.

[35] See for instance Qur’an 55-15.

[36] See Bediuzzamman Said Nursi, kulhiyat rasaila al Nursi isharat al-ijaijazfi , translated from from Turkish into Arabic by ihsan Qasim al-salihi, sozler publications, Istanbul 2011.

[37] Quran 51: 56-57

[38] For more information, read Abdul Majid al Najjai The vicegerency of Man Between Revelation and reason Ibid. P. 15. Abu al Mansur al maturidi, kitab al-tawheed,p. 96.

[39] Bediuzzamman Said Nursi, Nature Causes Or Effect? The twenty Third Flash, from the Risale-Inur Collection, Sozeler pubilications Istanbul, 2010. P. 44.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Bediuzzamman Said Nursi, The words,  Sozler publications, Istanbul 2008, p. 15.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, The Short words on life belief, and worship, Sozler publications, Istanbul 2006, p. 11-12.

[47] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, the short words on life, belief and worship. Ibid. p. 12.

[48] ibid.

[49] Retrieved from http://www .islamweb.net/emainpage/ index.phd?page=articles &id =134445.on 3/1/2013

[50] Ibid.

[51] Bediuazzaman Said Nursi, The short words, Ibid. p. 42.

[52] Bediuazzaman Said Nursi, The short words, Ibid. p 50.

[53] Ibid. p. 18.

[54] Read Qur’an 56:1.

[55] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Al-Mathnawi Al-Nuri Seedbed of the light, translated by Huseyin Akarsu, light, New Jersey, P.xv.

[56] Rediuzzaman said Nursi, the letters, the light, inc. New Jersey, 2007.

[57] Bediuzzaman said Nursi,The Damascus Sermon, Sozler publications, Istanbul 2001, p.32.

[58] Oxford Advanced learner’s Dictionary. Oxford university press 2000. 6th ed. P. 1106.

[59] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Sincerity and Brotherhood, sozler publications, 2001, p. 15.

[60] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Sincerity and Brotherhood, ibid p. 24.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Ibid. p. 25.

[63] Bediuazzaman Said Nursi, Sincerity and Brotherhood, p. 31-32.

[64] Qur’an 49:10.

[65] Qur’an 42:38.

[66] Bediuazzaman Said Nursi,  The Damascus Sermon, Sozler Publications, Istanbul, 2001. P. 56.

[67] Bediuazzaman Said Nursi,  The Damascus Sermon, Ibid. p. 57-58.

[68] Ibid p. 45.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University press 2000. 6th edition. P. 577.

[72] Marcia  Hermansen, “Faith Development and spiritual  matratiion in the works of said nursi” in the book spiritual dimension of Bediuazzaman Said Nursi’s Risale Inur edited with an Introduction by Ibrahim. M. Ab-Rabi, state university of New York press, 2008, p.94.

[73] Bediuazzaman said nursi,  the Damascus sermon, P. 44.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Qur’an 39:53.

[76] See franz Rosenthal, Sweeter than Hope; complaint and Hope in Medieval Islam Leiden, 1997). P.79.

[77] Qur’an 71:13.

[78] Qur’an 71:13-14.

[79] See Marcia Hermansen, Ibid. p. 95.

[80] See Salisu Shehu, the Qur’an and world peace. Presented at the Qur’anic reciters  Forum, organized by the National Headquarters of the Muslim Corpers Association of Nigeria. (M.C AN), Abuja, 2. 4thAugust 1996 at the Conference Hall of the National Mosque Abuja.  Nigeria, published by al Mustghfirun Foundation, Lagos- Nigeria, 2001. P.2.

[81] Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, Ibid. p.39.

[82] Ibid.

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